Archivo de enero 21st, 2011

Mr. Hudson is a strong disbeliever

Continúa  aquí  el artículo titulado “Economía semántica para la manipulación del conocimiento: la palabra Evolución y su uso como trampa en “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life””. El comienzo de este artículo se encuentra aquí. El artículo completo aquí.


6. Cuarto párrafo: Mr. Hudson is a strong disbeliever

Al final de un largo párrafo en el capítulo VIII (On Instincts) dedicado a los instintos en el cuco se lee:

Mr. Hudson is a strong disbeliever in evolution, but he appears to have been so much struck by the imperfect instincts of the Molothrus bonariensis that he quotes my words, and asks, “Must we consider these habits, not as especially endowed or created instincts, but as small consequences of one general law, namely, transition?”

Se confirma que para el autor evolución significa su propia idea de evolución, que como hemos visto es: Filogenia mediante cambio gradual. A quien no comparta su idea se le adjudican términos poco agradables:

Mr. Hudson is a strong disbeliever

7. Quinto párrafo: negative evidence is worthless

Dentro del capítulo X de título sorprendente (On the Imperfection of the Geological Record), es el primero de una sección titulada On the Sudden Appearance of Whole Groups of Allied Species.


The abrupt manner in which whole groups of species suddenly appear in certain formations, has been urged by several palaeontologists—for instance, by Agassiz, Pictet, and Sedgwick, as a fatal objection to the belief in the transmutation of species. If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection. For the development by this means of a group of forms, all of which are descended from some one progenitor, must have been an extremely slow process; and the progenitors must have lived long before their modified descendants. But we continually overrate the perfection of the geological record, and falsely infer, because certain genera or families have not been found beneath a certain stage, that they did not exist before that stage. In all cases positive paleontological evidence may be implicitly trusted; negative evidence is worthless, as experience has so often shown. We continually forget how large the world is, compared with the area over which our geological formations have been carefully examined; we forget that groups of species may elsewhere have long existed, and have slowly multiplied, before they invaded the ancient archipelagoes of Europe and the United States. We do not make due allowance for the enormous intervals of time which have elapsed between our consecutive formations, longer perhaps in many cases than the time required for the accumulation of each formation. These intervals will have given time for the multiplication of species from some one parent-form: and in the succeeding formation, such groups or species will appear as if suddenly created.

Está claro que:

If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection.

Pero si el registro fósil tiende a mostrar algo así, entonces no hay problema porque: negative evidence is worthless

8. Sexto párrafo: Forever Amen

As a record of a former state of things, I have retained in the foregoing paragraphs, and elsewhere, several sentences which imply that naturalists believe in the separate creation of each species; and I have been much censured for having thus expressed myself.  But undoubtedly this was the general belief when the first edition of the present work appeared. I formerly spoke to very many naturalists on the subject of evolution, and never once met with any sympathetic agreement. It is probable that some did then believe in evolution, but they were either silent or expressed themselves so ambiguously that it was not easy to understand their meaning. Now, things are wholly changed, and almost every naturalist admits the great principle of evolution. There are, however, some who still think that species have suddenly given birth, through quite unexplained means, to new and totally different forms. But, as I have attempted to show, weighty evidence can be opposed to the admission of great and abrupt modifications. Under a scientific point of view, and as leading to further investigation, but little advantage is gained by believing that new forms are suddenly developed in an inexplicable manner from old and widely different forms, over the old belief in the creation of species from the dust of the earth.

Se confirma lo dicho anteriormente. Evolution, para Darwin, es lo que él diga, sólo y exclusivamente lo que diga, porque no en vano hay un antes:

I formerly spoke to very many naturalists on the subject of evolution, and never once met with any sympathetic agreement.

Y un después:

Now, things are wholly changed, and almost every naturalist admits the great principle of evolution

Entre ambos momentos brilla la autoridad de su obra (y de quienes le ayudaron, a quienes Agassiz llamaba Henchmen, secuaces). Su truco ha funcionado: La palabra Evolución, antigua, de amplio significado y reconocido valor ha servido como trampa semántica para explicarlo todo mediante un juego de palabras. Una tautología recibe todo el valor de la ciencia creando así un verdadero fantasma semántico: La selección natural, The survival of the Fittest ha llegado para quedarse. Forever Amen.

9. Conclusión: Consecuencias de un Golpe Semántico. Previsión de futuro

El principal mérito de la obra titulada “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life” no es científico. La ciencia reclama lenguaje preciso y la ambigüedad en el uso del lenguaje es debilidad insostenible. Así, Darwin otorga a la expresión Selección Natural significados tan múltiples y variados que la hace completamente inútil desde el punto de vista científico, más no desde una perspectiva social.

El uso del lenguaje en “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life ” no se corresponde con la claridad y el rigor exigible a una obra científica. Por el contrario, Darwin utiliza el lenguaje con fines sociales, para la manipulación de conceptos y difusión de ideas. Desde Darwin el concepto Evolución, que antes tenía un amplio significado indisociable del de Desarrollo pasa a significar theory of gradual evolution by means of natural selection. Se han introducido a presión dos ideas: El cambio gradual, completamente contrario al registro fósil y la Selección Natural, una ambigüedad sin significado científico alguno pero de gran valor para los intereses de la Eugenesia. A partir de un concepto de gran significado y reconocido valor, Evolución, se construye una trampa semántica que sirve para potenciar un concepto sin valor alguno ni significado, una tautología: el fantasma semántico de la selección natural.

Mediante estas manipulaciones del lenguaje, la obra cumple, entre otras, dos finalidades sociales. En primer lugar, como ya decía el reverendo Hodge, acabar con la idea de diseño. En segundo lugar rebajar la Naturaleza a la calidad de objeto.

Como el método utilizado parte de la observación de los métodos de criadores de palomas y de ganado, y la variación es mayor en razas seleccionadas que en la naturaleza el autor propone que en la naturaleza el cambio es gradual. Sus argumentos son a cual más sorprendente. He aquí algunos:

1. No es probable que cambios abruptos como los que tienen lugar durante la domesticación hayan ocurrido en la naturaleza (it is not probable that such great and abrupt variations have often occurred under nature, as are known occasionally to arise under domestication).
2. Algunas variaciones surgidas en domesticación pueden atribuirse a la reversion. Seguramente que los caracteres manifestados entonces se habrán obtenido en muchos casos de manera gradual (Of these latter variations several may be attributed to reversion; and the characters which thus reappear were, it is probable, in many cases at first gained in a gradual manner).
3. Las monstruosidades son muy diferentes de las especies naturales y por eso arrojan poca luz en la materia. Excluyéndolas, las pocas restantes constituirían en el major de los casos especies dudosas, muy relacionadas con sus tipos parentales. (A still greater number must be called monstrosities, such as six-fingered men, porcupine men, Ancon sheep, Niata cattle, etc.; and as they are widely different in character from natural species, they throw very little light on our subject. Excluding such cases of abrupt variations, the few which remain would at best constitute, if found in a state of nature, doubtful species, closely related to their parental types).
4. Si variaciones abruptas semejantes a las que tienen lugar en producciones domésticas ocurriesen en la naturaleza, entonces se perderían por entrecruzamientos o destrucción accidental, como ocurriría en la domesticación si el hombre no tuviera cuidado. (According to our experience, abrupt and strongly marked variations occur in our domesticated productions, singly and at rather long intervals of time. If such occurred under nature, they would be liable, as formerly explained, to be lost by accidental causes of destruction and by subsequent intercrossing; and so it is known to be under domestication, unless abrupt variations of this kind are specially preserved and separated by the care of man. Hence, in order that a new species should suddenly appear in the manner supposed by Mr. Mivart, it is almost necessary to believe, in opposition to all analogy, that several wonderfully changed individuals appeared simultaneously within the same district. This difficulty, as in the case of unconscious selection by man, is avoided on the theory of gradual evolution, through the preservation of a large number of individuals, which varied more or less in any favourable direction, and of the destruction of a large number which varied in an opposite manner.)

Darwin está decidido a defender en su libro el cambio gradual mediante Selección Natural. Lo más importante no es lo primero sino lo segundo. Si la sociedad admite a la Selección Natural, entonces, la manipulación de la naturaleza está justificada. La Eugenesia tiene las puertas abiertas. Para conseguir imponer un fantasma semántico: La Selección Natural, se ha apoderado de un concepto muy importante Evolución, cuyo valor semántico va a sacrificar a sus intereses. A partir de ahora y pase lo que pase Evolución significará:

Formación de las especies por cambios graduales dirigidos por la Selección Natural.

El registro fósil demuestra la imposibilidad del cambio gradual pero esto no importa porque para Darwin todo tiene explicación.

La trampa ha funcionado durante ciento cincuenta y un años, pero ahora está a punto de quedar al descubierto. ¿Cuáles pueden ser las consecuencias del descubrimiento de este golpe semántico? Teniendo en cuenta que sus objetivos eran dos, a saber:

- Primero, eliminar la necesidad de Diseño en la naturaleza. Y,
- Segundo, rebajar la Naturaleza a la calidad de objeto.

Entonces, la caida anunciada de Darwin y su falsa “teoría” tiene dos consecuencias: 1: Volverá a surgir con fuerza la idea de diseño. 2. La idea de misterio en la Naturaleza deberá ser restaurada.


Baer, K. E. von. 1828-1837. Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere: Beobachtung und Reflexion, 2 vols. Königsberg: Bornträger.

Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: Murray.

Hodge, Ch. What is Darwinism? Scribner, Armstrong and Co. New York. 1874.

Oppenheimer, J. 1967. Essays in the History of Embryology and Biology. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Richards, R. 1992. The Meaning of Evolution: The Morphological Construction and Ideological Reconstruction of Darwin’s Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Richards, R. Karl Ernst von Baer. Internet file:

Sainte Marie MB, Meunier JG, Payette N, Chartier JF. 2010. Digital Humanities.

El artículo completo se encuentra aquí.

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