Number 35, march - april 2006

Forum for Debate:

Effects of quantum size and their importance for the reactivity and stability of nanostructures

At the basis of nanoscience lies the concept that a piece of matter shows new properties if its size is reduced (at least in one spatial dimension) below a certain critical length. Behind this concept is the fact that electron confinement leads to the appearance of a new set of discrete quantum states, the Quantum Well States, which are sequentially occupied by electrons resulting in quantum oscillations of many properties with the size of the system. These are known as Quantum Size Effects. Here we describe some effects of this kind, related to the chemical reactivity and the thermal stability of nanostructures.

Rodolfo Miranda
Laboratorio de Superficies
Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada e Instituto Nicolás Cabrera
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Nanobiotechnology; Therapeutic and Diagnoses Advances

Nanobiotechnology, convergence of the Nanotechnology and the Biotechnology fields, is one of the Nanotechnology areas which will have a huge impact in the near future mainly due their applications in the early diagnosis and therapeutics. The early detection of diseases as cancer, the personalised treatments and the disease post-evolution recording will be possible, in the coming years, due to the application of the nanobiotechnological tools under development. This article will provide an overview about the Nanobiotechnology in general and the Nanomedicine in particular, showing the most important advances in these areas. New diagnostic and therapeutic tools of higher performance that the existing ones could be implemented, providing a higher quality of life for the citizens.

Laura M. Lechuga
Grupo de Biosensores. Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CNM)

Carlos Martínez-Alonso
Departamento de Inmunología y Oncología. Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (DIO-NB)

Nanoscience and Economy

The economic science focuses new technologies analysis inside the meso-economic frame (sectors, territories, institutions). This article is concentred on the sectoral scope taking into account the nanotechnology contribution to the economic structure characterized by Leontief open model. Besides this point of view, such structural transformation is linked to the economic cicles evolution in the long term (Schumpeter), establishing a relationship between the nanotechnology potential and the convergence process named "nano-bio-info-cogno" (NIBC). Finally, the article proposes several recomendations for the scientific and technological policy in this field.

Emilio Fontela
Universidad Antonio de Nebrija

Open Lecture Room:

The third edition of the Manual of Oslo: Changes and Implications. An Intellectual Capital Perspective

The Manual of Oslo is the main international source of directives for the collection and analysis of information relative to innovation. Part of the OECD’s “Frascati Family”, and its third edition (published October 2005) has been updated to gather the advances attained in the innovation process.

M. Paloma Sánchez
Catedrática de Economía Aplicada
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Rocío Castrillo
Doctoranda en Gestión de la Innovación y Política Tecnológica
Ayudante de Investigación
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Supporting the Growth in Innovation: Improvement of the R&D Fiscal Credit. Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the United Kingdom

Spain offers at the present time the most favourable fiscal frame for R&D and Innovation in the OECD. The fiscal deductions systems on the tax basis of the corporation tax, although is a relatively young structure and, for that reason, with difficulties of running…

Daniel de la Sota Rius
Director Dpto. Innovación y Nuevas Tecnologías
CEIM Confederación Empresarial de Madrid-CEOE