An aproximation to the evolution and demographic characterisitics of the population of Madrid during the XVI century

Reflections in relation to the research and development in the Spanish electricity system
  The energy can be analyzed from several perspectives. From those perspectives arise several scientific and technological issues needed of an answer related with the changing world and the energy problems. This article is focused on the electricity system, which represents only a third of the energy global system. Within the electricity system, three issues are analyzed : supply safety, environmental concerns and industrial and technological development capability.

Research and Development in the Electricity Industry.
  The authors begin its analysis with a chronological study of the R&D in this industry, underlining the importance of the R&D Electrotechnical Programme (P.I.E.). Next interest areas in this field are market liberalization, globalization, environment and renewable energy, and mastering of the market demand.

Technology and Innovation Management in the Spanish Electricity Industry
  The authors show a theoretical review of the Innovation Management (with the internal and external assessments, and the valorization of the technological competences mastered by the firm). Then, the paper examines the Innovation Management in the Spanish Electricity Industry, paying attention to the main R&D areas nowadays. The objective of these R&D efforts is to enhance efficiency and to obtain profits from the use of the renewable energy.

The innovation management in the electricity industry
  After showing the changes that have been produced in the industry in recent years, the authors analyze some of the innovation lines developped nowadays by the firms. In this way, they insist in the important wind power potential installated in the country that has give birth to a national industry. They also emphasize the important efforts made by the main european and american companies to develop a new business area : the utilization of the electricity network to carry voice and data.

R&D and Innovation in « Red Eléctrica »
  The paper deals with the interest of « Red Eléctrica » in innovation concerns, and develop the innovation ways in the firm. Following an business environment analysis (pointing out the opportunities and threats), the article shows the priorities of the firm in the R&D and Innovation field : to reduce the costs of building, operating and maintaining the facilities ; to increase quality in the transport service, and to improve the integration of the transport activity within the environment

Technological Innovation
  Dealing with the peculiarities of the electricity industry, the author shows how « Unión Fenosa Generación » has faced up the changes in the regulatory framework, because those changes has affected its technological management. From this perspective, the firm tries to modernize and to integrate Technology and Innovation Management within its Strategic Management.