La inmovilidad de la Tierra, la condena de las teorías de Copérnico y las tribulaciones de Galileo

David Barrado y Navascués

Ciertas fechas deberían ser borradas del calendario, son merecedoras del oprobio y la vergüenza. Una de ellas es el 24 de febrero, cuando una comisión de teólogos consultores de la Inquisición, en el año 1616, censuraron la teoría heliocéntrica de Copérnico y reafirmaron la inmovilidad de la Tierra.


Portada de la obra de Nicolás Copérnico “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium” (Sobre el movimiento de las esferas celestiales), en la edición de 1543.

En realidad el proceso fue algo más complicado. Comenzó el 19 de febrero con la propuesta de censura de una comisión de experto, entre los cuales no había ningún astrónomo. Continuó con una reunión de la Congregación del Santo Oficio en la que se inició la amonestación a Galileo por orden del papa Paulo V, realizada al día siguiente por el Cardenal Bellarmino, cuando se le prescribe que abandone la opinión de que la Tierra se mueve. El primero de marzo la Congregación del Índice prohibe una serie de libros relacionados con el copernicanismo y su validez desde un punto teológico, y se suspende la obra copernicana De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Sobre el movimiento de las esferas celestiales) hasta su “corrección”. Recordemos que la teoría heliocéntrica, y el modelo matemático que la acompaña, era esencial para calcular con precisión y sencillez los movimientos de los planetas y estaba relacionada con la reforma del calendario, por lo que era extremadamente difícil prohibirla. El decreto se publicaría varios días más tarde, el 5 de marzo.


La abjuración de Galileo Galilei ante el Santo Oficio el 22 de junio de 1633, según un cuadro del siglo XIX pintado por Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury.

La historia, por supuesto, no termina aquí. Años más tarde, el 22 de junio de 1633, Galileo será formalmente condenado por la Inquisición y forzado a abjurar, de rodillas, de la teoría de Copénico, calificada de herética.

Eppur si muove… Probablemente Galileo, anciano y derrotado, no pronunció está frase. Y sin embargo se mueve. Algunas pruebas empíricas del movimiento de rotación de la Tierra son:

– La caída libre de los cuerpos, ya sugerida por Galileo. Al caer se desplazan hacia el Este. La primera confirmación se obtuvo en un experimento realizado en 1791 desde la Torre de los Asinelli, en Bolonia.
– El péndulo de Focault. La primera comunicación se realizó 1851.
– La desviación de los proyectiles de artillería hacia la derecha en el hemisferio Norte.

Otra prueba de la movilidad de la Tierra es la aberración de la luz, descubierta por James Bradley en 1728, y que es el resultado de la suma de la velocidad finita de la luz con la de la Tierra en torno al Sol y produce una variación de la posición aparente de las estrellas.

En verdad, eppur si muove.

ENLACES:


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90 comentarios

  1. quiero saber cuando exploraron estas persona:Nicolas Copernico y Galileo Galilei.

  2. hola,yo les queria decir: para todo lo que se con los planetas es muy importante y lo que le icierona a galileo esta muy mal no era justo los que los que los querian matar,abria que haber matado a ellos porque si galileo descubrio algo porque de ocultarlo yo queiro saber mas sobre esta trama para esta informacion por favor me mandan un mensaje a mi correo electronico!

    garcias!…………………..

    natali 7/07/07

  3. necesito si es posible que me envíen mucha informació sobre esto de Galileo ya que tengo un trabajo de investigación muy importante sobre Josue 10:12, relacionado con esto, lo necesito. gracias bendiciones

  4. me dejaron una tarea de el sistema solar segun copernico pero no encontre nada me podrian ayudar

  5. […] creencias, se encontró Roberto Belarmino.   Este cardenal jesuita sería el responsable que se condenase la teoría de la movilidad de la Tierra alrededor del Sol y se prohibiese al pisano su difusión salvo como hipótesis matemática. Como responsable fue de la […]

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